Status Of Grossly Polluting Industries (GPI)
One of the functions entrusted to Central pollution control board under National Ganga River Basin Authority Project is inventorization, monitoring and surveillance of pollution load discharging into river Ganga. While assessing the industrial pollution load it is understood that the assessment of pollution load in the tributaries namely Ramganga and Kali (E) is an imperative prerequisite. Thus the assessment of pollution load of Kali and Ramganga is added along with main stem of Ganga. An attempt has been made in this publication is to collect, collate and dessiminate the information from the data of concerned State Pollution Control Boards which are located on the banks of main stem of River Ganga. These are: Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
The information on grossly polluting industries is collected through a questionnaire. The format of the questionnaire is given in Annexure-VI, which is duly filled by the regional offices of the concerned state Boards. The filled questionnaire after judicious scrutiny by in-house experts has been summarized in AnnexureVII. It is pertinent to mention that this database is primarily on the information of grossly polluting industries. Grossly Polluting Industries (GPI) are defined as the industry which is discharging wastewater more than 100KLD and/or hazardous chemicals used by the industry as specified under the Schedule-I, Part-II of The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules of 1989 under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
Classification of Industrial Units with respect to products
Industrial units are classified in following sectors.
- Chemicals: which mainly include fertilizer, petro-chemical , pesticides and pharmaceuticals. # Distillery
- Dairy, Food & Beverage
- Pulp and Paper
- Textile, Bleaching & Dyeing
- Other (Cement, Slaughter house, Ordinance, Packaging & printing, Paint, Electronics& Electrical, Thermal, Kattha –kachh, Electroplating, Metallurgical, automobile etc.
FINDING AND OBSERVATION
Sector wise distribution of industries
There are 764 industries in the main stem of Ganga and referred tributaries Kali (E) and Ramganga. Out of which 687 industrial units are in Uttar Pradesh followed by 42 in Uttarakhand. Sector wise distribution of industrial units is given in figure-8.1. It is observed from the figure-8.1 that number wise tanneries are dominant industries followed by sugar, pulp & paper and Textile, dyeing and bleach.
Status of water Consumption and Wastewater Generation
Total water consumption in the industries is 1123 MLD and waste water generation is 501 MLD. Uttar Pradesh is the dominating states with respect to water consumption (62 % of total water consumed) and wastewater generation (45% of total wastewater generated) followed by Uttarakhand. This is summarized in table-8.1 and percentage wise consumption and generation is depicted in figure-8.2 &8.3.
Close examination to the table-8.1 and figure-8.2 &8.3 it is observed
- Wastewater generation is nearly 45% in terms of total water consumption.
- In terms of water consumption industries in Uttar Pradesh consumes maximum water followed by Uttarakhand and West Bengal. But wastewater generation with respect to water consumption is enhanced in Uttarakhand and West Bengal.
Sector wise water consumption and wastewater generation is given in table-8.2. It reveals from the stated table that
- Maximum water consumed and generated by Pulp and Paper industries. The consumption is followed by sugar industries while generation is followed by chemical industries.
Percentage wise water consumption and wastewater generation in various categories of industrial sectors is given in figure -8.4&8.5 and it is observed from the figures that
- Sugar, pulp and paper and chemical are the three major sectors which consume approx 73% water and generate 79% of total wastewater.
Status of state wise water consumption and wastewater generation from grossly polluting industries
Number of grossly polluting industries located in Uttarakhand is 42. Out of which, 7 industries are dischargingin the main stem of Ganga and located in the region of Dehradun and rest are located in the subbasin of Ranmganga in the region of Kashipur and Udham Singh Nagar. In Uttarakhand category wise only three types of industries are located; these arepulp and paper, sugar and distillery. The status of water consumption and wastewater generation by these industries is stated in table-8.4&8.5.
It is observed from the table that 96% wastewater generated is discharged in Ramganga riverine system, which ultimately leads to the main stem of River Ganga at Kannauj Upstream (Uttar Pradesh). Pulp and paper industry is the sector which generates 90% of total waste water; this is illustrated in the figure -8.6.
The category wise and water body wise wastewater generation in the state of Uttar Pradesh is depicted in table-5. It is observed from the table that there are 687 industries of grossly polluting status discharging 269 MLD wastewater. The Suagr, Pulp and Paper and Chemicalare the major industrial sector which discharged 70% of total wastewater generated in the state. Out of 688 industries 594 are located in the main stem of Ganga River. It is also observed that 442 industries are tannery. Volume wise highest wastewater 85.7 MLD is coming from sugar industry. This indicates that the tannery although have a higher number of industries but discharging less volume of wastewater, which concludes that tanneries are basically small scale industry.
With respect to River Kali-East sugar, distillery and pulp & paper are the major industrial sectors which are discharging in to the river. In comparison to the number of the industries with respect to Ganga is small (53) but discharging 71.4 MLD wastewater. Pulp & paper is discharging 36.8 MLD wastewater, which is 52% of the total wastewater discharged into the river Kali-East by grossly polluting industries. Next to Pulp & paper is Sugar industry (15) and discharging 14.8 MLD.
It is pertinent to mention that Ramganga which houses 44 industries but discharging 106 MLD wastewater and major of them are sugar industries which are discharging 50% of total wastewater discharged into the river Ramganga in Uttar Pradesh.
The percentage wise wastewater generation in these three riverine systems and sector specific wastewater generation in Uttar Pradesh is given in figure-8.7 &8.8 respectively. The status of sector specific water consumption and wastewater generation in Uttar Pradesh and in the three riverine systems in Uttar Pradesh is given in table-8.6 &8.7 respectively.
In the state of Bihar, discharge from grossly polluting industries is not so prominent in comparison to other states with respect to river Ganga. The total discharge from industries is 17.3 MLD, out of which 7 MLD is from Barauni refinery. The information regarding wastewater from various type of industries is summarized in Table-8.8.
There is no information regarding industrial discharge in river Ganga at Jharkhand.
In the stretch of West Bengal the river Hooghly (Ganga is named as Hoogly here) receives 87 MLD wastewater from 22 grossly polluting industries. It is pertinent to note that various categories of industries are housed on the banks of Hooghly, this is summarized in table-8.9. It is observed that chemical industry discharges 70% of total wastewater generated, followed by Pulp & paper which is 20%. This is a deviation from the trend in Upper and middle Ganga.
Comparison of industrial wastewater discharges among three riverine system: Kali- East, Ramganga & main stem of Ganga.
A comparison of wastewater discharged in river Ganga, Kali-East and Ramganga in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh (up to Kannauj Downstream) all together is shown in table-8.10 and percentage discharged by grossly polluting industries in these rivers at Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh is depicted in figure-8.10.
- It is observed from the figure-10 that wastewater discharged by grossly polluting industries from Uttarakhand to Uttar Pradesh upto Kannauj downstream all together in river Ramganga is 69% followed by Kali-East (22%) and River Ganga (9%).
- However if we take the whole stretch of River Ganga the percentage of total wastewater discharged to river Ramganga is 46% followed by Ganaga (40%) and Kali-East (14%). This is depicted in figure-8.11.
Sector specific wastewater generation in terms of water consumption
- In Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal all together it is observed that average wastewater generation by grossly polluting industries is approx 45% of water consumed by these industries.
- Tannery; Distillery; Dairy, food and beverage; Dyeing, Textile & Bleach and Pulp & paper are the sectors which generate more than 50% wastewater in terms of water consumed by these categories of industries. The details are given in Table-8.11.
- There are 764 grossly polluting industries discharging wastewater to main stem of River Ganga (either directly or through drains) and its two important tributaries Kali-east and Ramganga in Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and west Bengal. Out of 764 industries, 687 are located in Uttar Pradesh.
- The water consumed by grossly polluting industries is 1123 MLD.
- Total wastewater generated by grossly polluting industries is 501 MLD. This is 45% (approx) of total
- water consumed.
- In terms of number of industrial units, tannery sector is dominating where as in terms of wastewater generation Pulp & paper sectors dominate followed by chemical and sugar sector. It is observed that GPI in Bihar generate minimum wastewater (19%) in terms of water consumed whereas GPI in West Bengal generate maximum wastewater 75.5% in terms of water consumed this followed by Uttarakhand (56.7%) and Uttar Pradesh (39%%).
- In the riverine system Ramanga carries maximum industrial wastewater followed by main stream of river Ganga and Kali-East respectively.
Central Pollution Control Board has inspected 441 industries (as on 30/06/2013) to check the compliance and inventory provided by State Polution Control Board and to check the adequacy of industries in terms of wastewater pollution. Details of industries monitored and their action taken are provided in Annexure-VIII.