Performance evaluation of sewage treatment plants in India funded under NRCD

Performance evaluation of sewage treatment plants in India funded under NRCD

Report from the Central Pollution Control Board (India)


In urban areas, water is tapped from rivers, streams, wells and lakes for domestic and industrial uses. Almost 80% of the water supplied for domestic use, comes back as wastewater. In most of the cases untreated wastewater is let out which either sinks into the ground as a potential pollutant of ground water or is discharged into the natural drainage system causing pollution in downstream areas.

The present report is the outcome of the study on performance evaluation of STPs funded under National River Conservation Plan of Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India carried out by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).

The report envisages performance evaluation of 152 STPs spread over 15 states in the country and having total treatment capacity of 4716 MLD. The study revealed that the actual treatment capacity utilization is only 3126 MLD (66%). Out of the 152 STPs, 9 STPs are under construction, 30 STPs are non-operational and performance of 28 STPs not satisfactory. Out of the 152 STPs, the treated effluent from 49 STPs exceeds the BOD standards and with respect to COD, 07 STPs are violating the general standards of Discharge.

The status of STPs in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal indicate that maximum Sewage treatment capacity exists in Tamil Nadu (16.9%) followed by Uttar Pradesh (16.4%), Andhra Pradesh (15%), Punjab (14%), West Bengal (10%). Haryana (7%), Maharashtra (6%), Gujarat (4.9 %), Madhya Pradesh (3.6 %), Bihar (3.4 %), Uttarakhand (1.1 %), Karnataka (0.9 %), Delhi (0.4%) and Goa (0.2%). STPs designed on Trickling filter and Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) technologies are meeting the standards and having more than 90 % efficiency in terms of BOD removal.

I gratefully acknowledge the contribution of my collegues Sh A K Sinha Sc. ‘D’, Sh. Vishal Gandhi, Scientist ‘C’ and Ms. Garima Dublish, Research Associate under the supervision of Sh R.M Bhardwaj, Sc.’D’ and overall guidance of Sh. J.S Kamyotra, Member Secretary. I am hopeful that the document would prove useful as a reference for all concerned individuals or organizations working in the field of improvement of water quality of aquatic resources and treatment of municipal wastewater. 

-Ajay Tyagi, Chairman